Starting from first principles, we derive the fundamental equations that relate the $n$-point correlation functions in real and redshift space. Our result generalises the so-called `streaming model’ to higher-order statistics: the full $n$-point correlation in redshift-space is obtained as an integral of its real-space counterpart times the joint probability density of $n-1$ relative line-of-sight peculiar velocities. Equations for the connected $n$-point correlation functions are obtained by recursively applying the generalised streaming model for decreasing $n$. Our results are exact within the distant-observer approximation and completely independent of the nature of the tracers for which the correlations are evaluated. Focusing on 3-point statistics, we use an $N$-body simulation to study the joint probability density function of the relative line-of-sight velocities of pairs of particles in a triplet. On large scales, we find that this distribution is approximately Gaussian and that its moments can be accurately computed with standard perturbation theory. We use this information to formulate a phenomenological 3-point Gaussian streaming model. A practical implementation is obtained by using perturbation theory at leading order to approximate several statistics in real space. In spite of this simplification, the resulting predictions for the matter 3-point correlation function in redshift space are in rather good agreement with measurements performed in the simulation. We discuss the limitations of the simplified model and suggest a number of possible improvements. Our results find direct applications in the analysis of galaxy clustering but also set the basis for studying 3-point statistics with future peculiar-velocity surveys and experiments based on the kinetic Sunyaev-Zel’dovich effect.
The streaming model describes the mapping between real and redshift space for 2-point clustering statistics. Its key element is the probability density function (PDF) of line-of-sight pairwise peculiar velocities. Following a kinetic-theory approach, we derive the fundamental equations of the streaming model for ordered and unordered pairs. In the first case, we recover the classic equation while we demonstrate that modifications are necessary for unordered pairs. We then discuss several statistical properties of the pairwise velocities for DM particles and haloes by using a suite of high-resolution $N$-body simulations. We test the often used Gaussian ansatz for the PDF of pairwise velocities and discuss its limitations. Finally, we introduce a mixture of Gaussians which is known in statistics as the generalized hyperbolic distribution and show that it provides an accurate fit to the PDF. Once inserted in the streaming equation, the fit yields an excellent description of redshift-space correlations at all scales that vastly outperforms the Gaussian and exponential approximations. Using a principal-component analysis, we reduce the complexity of our model for large redshift-space separations. Our results increase the robustness of studies of anisotropic galaxy clustering and are useful for extending them towards smaller scales in order to test theories of gravity and interacting dark-energy models.
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 479, Issue 2, p.2256-2276,